Kovio, a privately held Silicon Valley company with origins in the world renowned MIT Media Lab, designs, develops, and manufactures printed silicon products for Near Field Communication (NFC) and Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) markets, including Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags and NFC Barcodes. By combining the power and functionality of high-performance silicon inks and low cost graphics printing technology, Kovio enables its customers and partners to deploy innovative products and solutions in the areas of mobile marketing and advertising, brand authentication, retail operations, and ticketing. Based on breakthroughs in nanotechnology and molecular synthesis, Kovio has developed high-performance silicon, dopant, metal, and insulator inks that are the electronic equivalents of color inks in graphics printing. By combining these proprietary functional inks with printing technologies, Kovio manufactures low-power, high-performance semiconductor devices and integrated circuits over thin, flexible, lightweight, and large area substrates, at a fraction of the cost of conventional silicon technology and with a reduced environmental impact. Kovio has leveraged this revolutionary platform to develop low-cost NFC Barcodes and other products that are compatible with existing and emerging standards in NFC markets.